A series of wars in Central Europe between 1618 and 1648. Originally a war between various Protestant and Catholic states in the fragmented Holy Roman Empire, it gradually developed into a more general conflict involving most of the great powers. Repgen, Konrad. “The main problems of the Westphalian peace negotiations of 1648 and their solutions.” Zeitschrift für Bayerische Landesgeschichte 62 (1999): 399–438. According to de Graaf, the system of collective security created by the peace of Westphalia was based on the hierarchization of states: “In 1648, an era began in which European states continued to compete; but at the same time, through many treaties, they were given a place in the hierarchy of the international system, which thus gained more solidity and coherence” The idea went back to the medieval concept of societas christiana. “The peace of 1648, but also the end of the War of the Spanish Succession in 1713 and the Congress of Vienna in 1815 breathed new life into this concept. The treaties categorized countries as first-, second- or third-order powers, while the 2nd and 3rd rank powers simply had to accept this principle of order – and tried to find leverage to go with the bigger ones,” de Graaf said. The typically European way of thinking in the imperial and socially stratified categories of inclusion and exclusion as well as hierarchization was inserted and consolidated in the system of international states from 1648 and strongly projected onto the non-European world from the years 1815. Im 19. In the nineteenth century, the international order was lowered on the model of a European coalition that revolved around the five-fold alliance of Prussia, England, Austria, France and Russia at the top, with the non-European territories of Asia and Africa suffering the weight of their mutual inter-interim expansion. The Thirty Years` War was a series of wars in Central Europe between 1618 and 1648. Originally a war between various Protestant and Catholic states in the fragmented Holy Roman Empire, it gradually developed into a more general conflict involving most of the great powers. The war began when the newly elected Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand II, attempted to impose religious uniformity on his domains and impose Roman Catholicism on his peoples.

The Protestant states of the north, angered by the violation of their voting rights granted in the Peace of Augsburg, joined forces to become the Evangelical Union. These events triggered widespread fears throughout northern and central Europe and prompted Protestant Bohemians, who lived under the rule of Habsburg Austria, to revolt against their nominal ruler Ferdinand II. They ousted the Habsburgs and instead elected Elector Frederick V of the Palatinate as monarch. Frederick accepted the offer without the support of the union. Southern states, especially Roman Catholics, were angry about it. Under the leadership of Bavaria, these states formed the Catholic League to expel Frederick in support of the emperor. Brunert, Maria-Elisabeth. “The Peace of Westphalia 1648: An Order of Peace for empire and Europe.” In Friedensordnungen in geschichtswissenschaftlicher und geschichtsdidaktischer Perspektive. .

. . . . . .